Purgina Olga, student of Financial University under the Government of RF, Moscow
Scientific supervisor – Tretyakova G.V.
For the first time the question of the need to create a more effective system of instruction affecting development of schoolchildren was raised in the 1950s by russian teacher and psychologist, a student of L.S. Vygotsky, Leonid Vladimirovich Zankov (1901-1977). After the death of LS. Vygotsky L.V. Zankov became one of the leaders of the Scientific and Practical Institute of Defectology (now the Institute of Correctional Pedagogics of the Russian Academy of Education), where experimental studies of the development of abnormal children were conducted, in which the conditions for their effective teaching were revealed. In laboratory under the leadership of L.V. Zankov he began working on building a more effective system of teaching younger schoolchildren.
L.V. Zankov criticized the traditional methods of teaching. Programs and methods of teaching in primary classes do not provide the maximum possible overall development of students and at the same time give a low level of knowledge and skills. This is because the training material is of a simplified, primitive nature with a low theoretical level, and individuality of children is ignored, that is why slow pace of instruction is practiced.
In the development of his training system, L.Z. Zankov proceeded from the position of L.S. Vygotsky: education must lead development. He showed what training should be so that it could lead to development.
General development of junior schoolchildren in the framework of L. Zankov's experimental work was considered as the development of abilities, namely: observation, the ability to perceive phenomena, facts, natural, speech mathematical aesthetic, etc .; abstract thinking, the ability to analyze, synthesize, compare, generalize, and so on; practical actions, the ability to create a certain material object, to perform manual operations, developing at the same time perception and thinking.
The system of education leading to development rests on the didactic principles developed by scientists. Unlike traditional didactic principles, they are aimed to achieve an overall development of schoolchildren, which ensures the formation of knowledge. The principles are:
1) The principle of the leading role of theoretical knowledge in primary education. 2) The principle of learning at a high level of difficulty. 3) The principle of learning at a fast pace. 4) The principle of students' understanding of the learning process. 5) The principle of purposeful and systematic work on overall development of all students, including the weakest.
Particular importance is given to the principle of learning at a high level of difficulty. According to him, the content and methodology of training are built to cause active cognitive activity in mastering the teaching material. Difficulty is understood as an obstacle. The problem lies in the knowledge of the interdependence of phenomena, their internal connections, in the rethinking of information and the creation of their complex structure in the consciousness of the schoolboy. This is directly related to the principle of the leading role of theoretical knowledge.
Modern conditions require building of training on new principles, taking into account the specifics of the thinking of modern man. As researchers note, at the beginning of the XXI century there were new approaches not only to learning, but also to education in general. A pupil (a schoolboy, a student) began to regard education as a voucher, a great motivation for learning arose.
Of great importance for modern teaching is the problem of the formation of learning methods for self-acquiring knowledge. This problem is given considerable attention and for many years considered it in the framework of various approaches. Thus, in the literature, the features of mastering methods of mental activity and their transfer are described, the significance for intellectual ability not only of the knowledge of the reception but also its use in the student's own experience is shown, individual and typical differences in the mastery of the methods underlying the study of learningability are singled out.
Along with the problem of values in education, the problem of goals was always topical, because from what teachers focus and values depended on which direction to build the process of education and upbringing. In the history of development of educational systems, there are two approaches to the problem of goal-setting: formative (projective) and free. The forming approach is based on the fact that the highest goal of education is the fullest satisfaction of the state's requirements for individual, for graduate, who must ensure the progressive development of economy, science, technology. In the framework of this approach, interests of state come first. The second approach - free goal-setting - presupposes the creation of conditions for maximum development of abilities of each person, its ascent to higher human aspirations, life ideals and priorities, in other words, maximum development of those human properties that are determined by the needs of individual.
At present, learning is a multi-faceted process that includes all the elements of various psychological directions.
One of the most famous methods of foreign authors was created by Maria Montessori – a doctor, a teacher, a psychologist. The motto of methodology is "Help me to do it myself", that is, raising a child in such a way that he could and was able to perform tasks independently, and the parents' task is to support and direct it. Each child is an individual, therefore there is no need to be compared with other children or generally accepted norms. The Montessori system assumes that there is no coercion, criticism or interference by outsiders. The child must himself want to imitate the adults and perform the required actions, so that the teacher is guided precisely by the needs of the child, and not by the wishes of the parents.
Groups in schools by the method of Montessori can consist of children of different ages, while adults help each child to go his way of becoming and development. Without scandals, criticism, rude interference and studying of objects that do not correspond to age, the child blossoms
Another popular theory is the theory of Anton Semenovich Makarenko, a humanist teacher, who brought up "difficult children" in collective. Makarenko was a supporter of early development, he said that the main thing is not to miss the child, because it is more difficult re-educate. The decisive factor in education is example of parents, because not only instructive conversations are important for child, but also how adults behave. Makarenko's labor education is based on the fact that child should have a favorite business with which he will learn the world, while kid is inculcated with ability to work in a team - he will not be a solitary single.
At the same time, children can manage fruits of their labor independently, parents can encourage them, praise for achievements, but failures, on the contrary, temper character, so you do not need to shake child who stuffed the first bump on his forehead. Be sure to adhere to the regime - in this respect the authority of parents must be unshakable. When a child is 2-3 years old, parents should be able to firmly answer "no" and insist on their own, somehow the technique resembles French system of education. Early development begins in group: children learn to cooperate and explore the world together.
The theory of Nikolai Zaitsev (a well-known pedagogical innovator) who proposed a special development system, according to which children are taught to speak and read from an early age. For this purpose, textbooks were created not with letters, but with syllables and even ready-made words. Some cubes emit sounds that child can repeat, and if they are shaken - even the noise will be different: this is how child first learns about deaf and sonorous sounds. Kid can simultaneously imitate adults, mastering skills of speech, and remember writing, playing dice.
Training is conducted in a game mode: children sing, dance, jump, play, but in the process they get to know the world around them. For lessons of mathematics Zaitsev developed special tables, musical instruments, even puzzles and pictures can serve as teaching aids. Beginning of education as early as possible, one-year-old children simultaneously master conversation and reading, but the optimal age is still after 3 years.
Development in general is also affected by adults early stimulation. To prove this, I refer to the report made in Tokyo at the XX Psychological Congress in 1972. It is called "Teaching Before Speaking." Children, starting from the first year of life, were repeatedly shown the letters of the alphabet, which was accompanied by memorization of corresponding phonemes. Large images of letters hung in the crib of child and above it. As a result of this learning, children began to read words immediately as soon as they mastered their meanings and pronunciation.
Thus, development is the process of changing mental functions and personality as a whole under an influence of interaction with other people and in mastering leading activity. Student takes possession of reality through teacher and other adults. Development can change as a result of different conditions of life, communication, regime, nutrition, etc.
Development corresponds to biological indicators of what has changed in the personality of learner, whether he is moving to another stage of development and begins to fulfill the elements of a new activity for him.
In my opinion, development of psychology of learning can not be considered without an analysis of past achievements of scientists. Any educational technology has the right to exist if it is progressive and does not harm trainee. New approaches to learning should organically continue the research of psychologists and didacticians of the twentieth century. It is important that in psyche of learner such neoplasms that could reveal its potential, initiate cognition and lead to progress whole society could be formed.
1. L.S. Vygotsky and Education (Routledge Key Ideas in Education) by Luis C. Moll, 2015
2. The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori, 2010
3. The Road to Life : An Epic of Education (Vol. 1) by Anton Semenovich Makarenko, 2009
4. "Teaching Before Speaking" report, psychological Congress in Tokyo, 1972
5. The Psychology of Learning by Kendra Cherry, 2017
6. Psychology of Learning and Motivation by Brian H. Ross, 2014