Экономика инноваций: фундаментальные проблемы
перехода к инновационной экономической модели в России
Anastasia Zaitseva, Faculty of International Economic Relations,
3d-year Student, Financial University, Moscow, Russia
Key words: innovation, innovative economic model, economic development, competitiveness, economy of Russia
Ключевые слова: инновации, инновационная экономическая модель, экономическое развитие, конкурентоспособность, экономика России
Abstract: The article is devoted to the innovative model of the economy. Based on the foreign experience of implementation of the innovative economic model, the opportunities of Russia's transition to the model of an innovative economy are analyzed and the main problems are identified.
Аннотация: В данной статье рассматривается инновационная модель экономики. На основе зарубежного опыта внедрения инновационной модели экономики проанализированы возможности перехода России к модели инновационной экономики и выделены основные проблемы.
In the context of globalization, the most striking success in social and economic development is achieved by countries, sharing the positive attitude towards various innovations, specifically supporting the development of business and high-tech industries, encouraging more research and development. Obviously, the above aspects are the basic pillars of innovative economic development. Today, an innovative economy can be defined as a type of economy, based on a stream of innovation, continuous technological improvement, production and distribution of high-tech products . Accordingly, the main profit is formed not through material production, but through intellectual activity. Moreover, the innovative economy implies an appropriate infrastructure, which often represents innovative clusters. The most thoroughly modern features of clusters were highlighted in a review by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) "Increasing the innovation level of firms: the choice of policies and practical tools": geographic concentration, specialization, the multiplicity of economic agents, the combination of competition and cooperation, the achievement of the necessary "critical mass" in the size of the cluster, the viability of clusters, their involvement in the innovation process.
The most advanced «active-innovative economy concept -user» countries are the United States and Japan. Thus, the United States was the first to enter the stage of the scientific and technological revolution. Business incubators of various types received great development and popularity in the USA. Currently, the National Business Incubator Association includes over 1100 members. Over the years of the Association's existence, 19,000 companies have been "raised" in the incubators, and about half a million jobs have been created. According to the Association, 87% of all firms, released into "free swimming" from incubators, still exist. According to the classification of business incubators used in the United States, four types are distinguished: 1) university incubators created at higher educational institutions. The main task of such organizations is to establish a close connection between the development of university scientists and entrepreneurs. 2) municipal incubators, formed by local authorities, whose purpose is to activate business activity in the region. 3) private incubators created by entrepreneurs and acting as a commercial company that receives profit from its activities, both inside the incubator and for external customers. 4) hybrid incubators, formed with the joint cooperation of entrepreneurs and local authorities.
In general, today the US innovation complexes remain absolute leaders both in terms of the number of employees engaged in innovative activity and in the number of employed workers. Separately, I would like to pay attention to the innovative economy of Japan. Thus, the innovation complexes, and, in general, the infrastructure of this country, are significantly different from the American ones. The decisive role in the development of the economy in Japan is played by the state, and the principles of cooperation are formed by traditions. In this regard, Japan is often referred to as "Japan Incorporated", implying that the country resembles a huge concern that is managed from a single center. Nevertheless, despite its commitment to tradition, Japan is actively monitoring innovations that are being developed and implemented in other countries. For the reasons described above, the development of the innovation sphere in the country was carried out within the framework of major national programs - the program for the creation of the so-called science city "Tsukuba"  and programs for the development of technopolis. "Tsukuba" is an artificially created cluster in which all scientific laboratories from Tokyo were taken out. In addition, the technopolis is endowed with great powers and is obliged to develop a strategy for the research development of its region, which significantly affects the socio-economic development of these territories. Despite the successful foreign experience in introducing the principles of the innovative economic model, Russia today is only at the initial stage of the transition. Although there are emerging positive trends, nevertheless, the occupation of innovative activity is only prestigious, but rather unprofitable, and this aspect is decisive in the Russian economy. As a basis for the transition to the model of innovative economy, Russian scientists have developed the Strategy for Innovative Development of Russia until 2020 . It consists of the most complete and precise list of goals and objectives of Russia's transition to the innovative economic model. Moreover, it includes the key principles of the transition, compiled a list of indicators and their respective levels, which will demonstrate in 2020 the degree of success of Russia's transition to the innovative economic model.
According to the Strategy, the main objective for today is the creation and stimulation of human potential in the field of science, education, technology and innovation. It is also significant to increase the innovative activity of the existing business and the dynamics of the emergence of new innovative companies. Furthermore, Russian science is more developed due to state subsidies, which makes it possible to single out one more key objective: to increase the innovative activity of the state, which is revealed through the widest possible introduction of new technologies into the work of the state apparatus, for example, the creation of an "e-government" system ". Another key objective is to increase the openness of the national innovation system and economy, the degree of Russia's integration into the world processes of creating and using innovations, expanding bilateral and multilateral international cooperation. Further, it is necessary to pay attention to the formation of innovative development territories, the development of innovative clusters, i.e. creation of productive cooperation between the center and regions in the field of innovation. The last, but not the least objective is the successful stimulation of the commercialization of research and development results, the improvement of the patent system in the Russian Federation and other legislative sources.
Therefore, the national innovation system, which allows increasing the intensity of the country's economic development through the use of scientific, technical and innovation results, is the fundamental basis for the development of the innovation economy. This thesis was highlighted in the Concept of Long-Term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 . Since 1997, the process of active creation of separate elements of this system (state funds, technology parks, innovation and technology centers, venture innovation fund) has begun. Evidently, despite the positive experience of majority of initiatives, a breakthrough in the field of innovative development of the Russian economy by 2017 has not happened yet.
After analyzing the relevant data, the main problems of transition to the innovative model of economy in Russia can be defined as follows: problems of innovation infrastructure, both at the federal and regional levels, related to Russia's lagging  behind the process of introducing the innovative units in the institutional system for the development, support and control of innovative technologies; 2) administrative and bureaucratic problems, as well as the corruption component, which impede the development of business in general, and become a reason for blunting the incentive to create innovative business projects in particular; 3) legislative system without clear elaboration of legislative acts related to the creation of intellectual property objects , their exploitation, sale and protection; 4) The educational problem, namely the lack of highly qualified scientists, intellectual "leakage" to the West for better working and living conditions, as well as inefficient management of innovative projects. 5) Cultural problems of the creation and use of innovative technologies associated with the Russian mentality that emerged in the 90s. This aspect seriously hinders the innovative development of the economy: scientists and developers are not interested in implementation of their research in to practice, as they are afraid of being removed from the results of their intellectual activity by force.
All things considered, it is possible to conclude that Russia has the colossal potential in the context of transition to the innovative model of economy. Nevertheless, the country needs to adopt foreign experience correctly, without taking certain elements of the innovation system and trying to implement them in to the Russian socio-economic reality without changes. Moreover, Russia has to pay more attention to internal factors, which may become an obstacle for innovative development of the economy: infrastructure, legislation, education, culture, technological backwardness.
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